Second lesson - How to conjugate verbs

Hej igen!

September’s lesson is all about verbs and how to conjugate them in present and past form. Enjoy!

 

First Conjugation

Infinitive

Imperative

Present

Past

Supine

att studera

studera

studerar

tittade

tittat

att arbeta

arbeta

arbetar

arbetade

arbetat

att titta

titta

tittar

tittade

tittat

 

In the first group of verbs you will find words with the most regular conjugation. The imperative form ends with –a. In Swedish, the imperative form also functions as the root, and you will add –r to create present tense, -de to create past tense, and –t to create supine. The supine form you combine with ”har” (har arbetat) or ”hade” (hade arbetat).

 

First Conjugation, continued

Infinitive

Imperative

Present

Past

Supine

att jobba

jobba

jobbar

jobbade

jobbat

att smsa

smsa

smsar

smsade

smsat

att googla

googla

googlar

googlade

googlat

 

In group 1 there are also verbs with a foreign origin. From the English noun ”job” we have got the Swedish verb ”att jobba” (to work). Other recent verbs are ”att smsa” (to send an sms/text) and ”att googla”.

 

 

Second Conjugation

Infinitive

Imperative

Present

Past

Supine

att bygga

bygg

bygger

byggde

byggt

att stänga

stäng

stänger

stängde

stängt

 

In the second conjugation, the imperative form ends with a consonant. To create the present tense you add –er. In order to create past tense you add –de, and to create supine you add –t, just like in the first conjugation.

 

Second Conjugation, continued

Infinitive

Imperative

Present

Past

Supine

att köpa

köp

köper

köpte

köpt

att läsa

läs

läser

läste

läst

 

Some verbs in group 2 have p, s, k, f or x in the root, (imperative). In such a case, the past form is spelled with –te instead of –de.

 

Second Conjugation, continued

Infinitive

Imperative

Present

Past

Supine

att köra

kör

kör

körde

hört

att höra

hör

hör

hörde

kört

 

The imperative form and the present tense form look the same for some verbs in the second conjugation. No extra –r or –er is added to create the present tense of the verb.

Third Conjugation

Infinitive

Imperative

Present

Past

Supine

att må

mår

mådde

mått

att tro

tro

tror

trodde

trott

att bo

bo

bor

bodde

bott

 

In the third conjugation we find verbs that have only one syllable in the infinitive form. The past form is spelled with –dde, and the supine form is spelled with –tt.

 

Fourth Conjugation

Infinitive

Imperative

Present

Past

Supine

att skriva

skriv

skriver

skrev

skrivit

att sjunga

sjung

sjunger

sjöng

sjungit

att äta

ät

äter

åt

ätit

 

In the infinitive, the imperative and the present form, verbs in the fourth conjugation looks just like verbs in the second. But, to create the past form, we simply change the vowel from the imperative. This phenomenon is common in Germanic languages, and you do the same thing in English – write/wrote, sing/sang, sit/sat etc. J

Irregular verbs

Infinitive

Imperative

Present

Past

Supine

att gå

går

gick

gått

att se

se

ser

såg

sett

 

There are irregular verbs in the Swedish language, just like in English. They are not that many and you’ll probably learn to recognize them quite quickly.

 

Have fun learning Swedish!

Sara Hörberg

www.theswedishteacher.com